Derech Tzofeh (“The Path of the Scout”) offers commentaries on Judaism from all diverse Jewish Scouting sources to incorporate the values inspired by the Torah, Talmud and Mishnah and relate them to the Scouting program.
We encourage publishing commentaries on this site, from respected rabbinical authorities to individual Jewish Scouts. The National Jewish Committee on Scouting recognizes all branches of Judaism – Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist – and considers each of equal importance and worthy of inclusion.
- Homepage Image
- Northeastern Region – Calendar
- Outdoor Adventure
- Western Region – News
February 25, 2022 – Parsha Vayakhel – Todah Robah Nelson!
For the last ten years, it has been my privilege to provide Derech Tsofeh – The Path of the Scout to Scouts and Scouters in many parts of the world. This d’var Torah will be my last installment. Thank you to everyone who read Derech Tsofeh, and especially to our many contributors and to some very special supporters: former National Jewish Committee on Scouting chairman Bruce Chudacoff and chaplain Rabbi Peter Hyman, who helped me get it started; Alan Smason, Stephen Shore, and others working with the Committee’s social media who facilitated its online publication; and sons Jordan and Adam, who guided me for several years in writing about Torah, and Brian, who showed me how social media could be an effective tool for providing Torah to our Scouts. Prior Derech Tsofeh are available at the National Jewish Committee on Scouting’s website: www.jewishscouting.org. I appreciate each of you who have accompanied me on this path – I’ll see you at the end of the trail.
This week’s parasha, Vayakhel, is the last of the three Torah portions where we learn about the construction of the Mishkan – the Tabernacle – our place of worship during the Exodus and then in the Land of Israel until the Temple was built.
We read about the building team in this portion. The workers were the people themselves – all the Israelites brought the fabrics, animal skins, metals and jewels that would be needed, until there was more than could be used.
The work was supervised by two men from very different backgrounds. The principal architect was Bezalel (“in the shadow of God” or “under the protection of God”). Bezalel was the grandson of Hur, an assistant to Moses, and the great-grandson of Miriam, Moses’ sister and herself a prophet. He was skilled in all kinds of crafts. He came from the aristocracy of Israel, the tribe of Judah. His assistant was Oholiab (“tent of my father” – he was building the tent for The Father). Oholiab was from the very modest tribe of Dan. So we see that Jews from all walks of life gave leadership to building the Tabernacle.
A very interesting fact for us is that Bezalel was 13 when he directed the building of the Tabernacle, according to the Talmud (Sanhedrin, 69b). But age didn’t matter, because God had chosen Bezalel for this work, and “filled him with Godly spirit, with wisdom, with understanding, and with knowledge, and with every craft.” God also “gave him the ability to teach … .” (Exodus, 35:31, 34).
That would have made quite an Eagle project – building the Tabernacle!
God has also filled you “with spirit, with wisdom, with understanding, and with knowledge.” Perhaps not with every craft, but God has given you talents and the ability to do things. Bezalel used his God-given gifts to create a place where the Israelites could worship God. How can you use your gifts to help people?
February 18, 2022 – Parsha Ki Sisa
There is a lot of counting going on in this week’s parasha, Ki Sisa.
It begins with God’s instructions that, when Moses takes a census of the Children of Israel, he is to do so by collecting a half-shekel from each person over 20 years old. The words Ki Sisa mean “to raise up,” which was appropriate because the coins collected in the census were used for the Mishkan (Tabernacle), so the people became elevated by using their means to honor God.
We are unsure as to whether a census was taken at that time. Ramban says there was, but Rashi disagrees – another count, 1 to 1.
After receiving instructions about the construction of the laver – the large copper basin in which the priests wash their hands and feet before performing the holy service – we start counting again, this time with exact numbers of the fragrant spices that go into the oil to be used to anoint the priests. Then God directs that the incense to be burned in the Mishkan will be made of equal measures (more counting) of four spices – stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense.
After designating the two artists who will build the Mishkan, Bezalel and Oholiab, God discusses Shabbat, and goes back to counting: “For six days work may be done and the seventh day is a day of complete rest.” The reminder of the holiness of Shabbat follows instructions for making the Mishkan which teaches us that even the holy work of building the Mishkan may not be done on Shabbat. In fact, the 39 types of work that are prohibited on Shabbat were derived from the tasks done in putting up and taking down the Mishkan.
Then we have a miscount, which brings about a tragedy. Moses told the people he would ascend Mount Sinai for 40 days to receive the Torah. The people think they should count the day he left as the first day, but Moses meant he would be gone for 40 full days, so the count would start the next morning. When Moses does not return on the day the people expected him, they fear they are now leaderless, and seek something to be a symbol of their relationship with God. They revert to familiar things, and call for Aaron and Hur, whom Moses left in charge during his absence, to build an idol. Tradition tells us that Hur opposed those calling for an idol and they killed him. Aaron, to calm the crowd, tells the people to bring their gold jewelry. He melts it down and fashions a golden calf. To direct the people’s attention away from the idol and back to God, Aaron says there will be a festival for God the next day. Some of the people begin dancing around the idol and worshipping it.
Moses returns to the camp and learns what has happened. He smashes the stone tablets on which God has inscribed the Ten Commandments, then he smashes the idol, pounds it to dust, mixes it with water and makes the people drink it.
Now Moses calls out, “Whoever is for God, join me!” The Levites, who have not taken part in the sin of the golden calf, join Moses, and they strike down about 3,000 people who worshipped the idol.
Moses then carves new stone tablets, goes back up Mount Sinai, where God again inscribes the Ten Commandments on the tablets. God teaches Moses the prayer we use to ask for forgiveness (counting again) the Thirteen Attributes: “Hashem, Hashem, God, Compassionate and Gracious, Slow to Anger, and Abundant in Kindness and Truth. Preserver of Kindness for thousand [of generations], Forgiver of Iniquity, Willful Sin and Error, and Who Cleanses.”
The counting that means the most to me was by Moses. He prayed for the people twice.
First, just before he came down Mount Sinai, God said “Let My anger flare up against them and I shall destroy them and I shall make you a great nation.” Moses pleaded with God not to do this, reminding God they were “Your people, whom You have taken out of the land of Egypt.” He also reminded God of the promises to the Patriarchs, to whom You promised to make their offspring as numerous as the stars and give them the Land of Israel.
Then, the next day, when Moses returned to the top of Mount Sinai, he prayed that God would forgive the people, “But if not, erase me now from this book that You have written.”
The math that Moses used calculated the Children of Israel as everything, and himself as nothing. He served the people selflessly, and the people could “count” on him at all times.
That is why, when we count the prophets, Moses is number one. Can the people who need you count on you like the Children of Israel could count on Moses?
February 11, 2022 – Parsha Tetzaveh
This week, Parasha Tetzaveh (command) is all about the Kohanim (Priests).
Last week, we learned about the Mishkan (Tabernacle), the place where God’s Glory was to rest. We also learned about the holy articles that would be used to worship God there – the Holy Ark, the Table for the Showbread, the Menorah and the Altar. Now, we learn about the people who are to minister to the people as they worship at the Mishkan.
Much of this week’s parasha is devoted to the commands God gives about the rituals for anointing the Kohanim. As a start to that process, God tells Moses “You shall make garments of sanctity for Aaron your brother, for glory and for splendor.” The garments are pure, white linen. Some of the High Priest’s garments are made of gold and threads of turquoise, purple and scarlet wool. In Hebrew, the “garments of sanctity” are called bigdei kodesh. Bigdei means clothing.
We usually think of kodesh as meaning “holy” or “sacred,” as in Aron Hakodesh, the Holy Ark. But kodesh can also mean “separate” – in this sense, things that are holy are separate from the rest of the world where people are usually involved in everyday pursuits like schoolwork, jobs, cleaning, shopping and watching TV. Shabbat is holy because it is separated from the work and concerns of the other days of the week – we rest and engage in spiritually uplifting activities, like attending synagogue or temple, learning Torah and paying respect to our loved ones while having fun by spending time with them.
So the beautiful clothing of the Kohanim are garments of separateness. As God has explained, these garments will be for glory and splendor.
Do you have any garments of separateness? Do you ever wear anything that sets you apart from most of the other kids? Like maybe your Scout uniform?
Yes, your uniform is similar to the clothing of the Kohanim. They wore beautiful clothes as a symbol of their service to God and the Children of Israel. Your uniform is also a symbol of service. It stands for your commitment, as expressed in the Scout Oath, “To do my duty to God and my country, to obey the Scout Law, and to help other people at all times, to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight.” You have the sacred job of serving God, your country, other people, and yourself.
Maybe it’s time to throw your Scout uniform in the wash and get those spots and wrinkles out. That shirt and neckerchief tell people you are doing an important job. You don’t have to tell anyone you also have lots of fun when you’re wearing them.
February 4, 2022 – Parsha Terumah
This week, I write in memory of Rabbi Alexander D. Goode, US Army Chaplain and former Scoutmaster, one of the Four Chaplains who gave up their lives saving others in the sinking of the troop ship USS Dorchester, February 3, 1943.
In this week’s parasha, Terumah, we learn about the beautiful items used in the Mishkan – the Tabernacle – during our sojourn in the Wilderness and later in the Temple.
- The Menorah, a seven-branched candelabra, made from a single mass of gold. Each branch was fashioned into several cups, capped by a knob, and finished with a flower. Special very pure olive oil was burned in the hollow space of the flower.
• The Golden Mizbeach (Altar) on which incense was burned.
• The Shulchan(Table) made of acacia wood with shelves on which were displayed 12 special loaves of bread.
These also included the Aron (the Holy Ark) the most important object in the Mishkan. It was the only thing in the Holy of Holies. The Ark was five feet long, three feet wide, and three feet high. It was a wooden box covered both inside and out with gold. Two Cherubim (heavenly creatures with child-like faces) were affixed to the top, facing each other with their wings spread over the Ark. The Ark had rings of gold at its four corners, two on one side and two on the other side, with acacia wood staves covered in gold with which the Ark was carried. Placed within the Ark were the Two Tablets of the Ten Commandments and the Torah scroll written by Moses.
All the vessels and other items in Mishkan, most of which were covered in gold on the outside, but the Aron was the only one also covered in gold on the inside. The Talmudic sage, Rava, explained the construction of the Aron suggests the way a student of Torah should be, righteous on both the outside and the inside. As Scouts, we should not only believe in the Scout Oath and Law, but also live them every day.
January 21, 2022 – Parsha Yitro
I am honored to to reprint one of my favorite Derech Tsofeh divrei Torah, by Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, a highly respected scholar, teacher and community leader. Rabbi Riskin is the former Chief Rabbi of Efrat, Israel, and the Chancellor Emeritus of Ohr Torah Stone Colleges and Graduate Programs.
Parasha Yitro describes the most magnificent and miraculous event to have ever occurred in world history: God’s revelation of the Ten Commandments to the Children of Israel from atop Mount Sinai. As the Bible tells it, several million Jews, recently freed from backbreaking slavery in Egypt, stood around the mountain and heard God giving a formula for good conduct which would teach people to love each other and to bring a world of peace.
The opening words are, “I am the Lord your God who took you out of Egypt the land of slavery”; clearly God is saying that he wants every person to be free. And then God goes on to command that we believe in Him, that we rest on the Sabbath day, that we respect our parents, that we do not murder, that we do not steal, and that we do not try to take away something that belongs to someone else. Indeed, if everyone lived by these simple rules, the world would be a much better place.
But there is one very strange part in this amazing story. The Promised Land of Israel, which was the eventual destination of the newly freed Hebrew slaves, was a distance away. Mount Sinai was in a wilderness, a desert. Why would God give such a precious gift as was the Ten Commandments in a no-man’s land, in an area without trees or flowers? Why didn’t He rather make the gift on Mount Moriah, the great mountain in Jerusalem where Abraham went to sacrifice his son Isaac? Why in a desert wilderness?
The Rabbis of the Midrash suggest that if these Ten Commandments had been given in Jerusalem, the Jews would have thought that they were meant for the Jews alone. And this dare not be the case. God gave the Ten Commandments in a no-man’s land because it is also an every-man’s land. These laws of proper conduct are meant for the entire world; unless the world will accept them and live by them, there will be no free world. Unless the world understands that there is a God who loves every human being, who wants us all to live together in peace and respect for each other, who forbids one individual from harming another innocent individual, there will be no world of peace. And God chose the Jewish people, who had just felt the pain of slavery and who seemed to understand how important it was to live a proper life, to teach the Ten Commandments to the entire world.
There is also a second reason why God gave His laws in the desert. The newly freed Jews were now becoming a new nation. If they were to teach the world, they must continue to survive and live through many generations. A desert is a very difficult place to live; it is very hot by day and freezing by night. The winds are quite strong and there are no natural protecting trees where one can hide. God believed that there was no better place to teach this young nation the necessary survival skills in a difficult environment which would enable them to grow strong and numerous when they finally would reach their promised land in forty years.
I can think of no audience better equipped to understand this message than the Scouts. You all are trained in wilderness survival skills and you understand the importance of living a life of good deeds.
May the Ten Commandments continue to follow and teach you wherever you may be.
Rabbi Shlomo Riskin
January 14, 2022 – Parsha BeShallach
This week we mark the completion of ten years of Derech Tsofeh with a guest d’var Torah by Rabbi David Shapiro, retired principal of Maimonides School in Boston, now living in Israel.
I want to share with you something I learned from my teacher in Boston, Rabbi Yitzhak Twersky (of blessed memory).
In this week’s parasha, BeShallach, as the Children of Israel escape Egypt with the Egyptians pursuing them, God split the Sea of Reeds, the Jews walked through on dry land, and then the waters came crashing down, drowning the Egyptians. Moshe and the Jews burst forth in spontaneous song to thank God. We recite this song (“Az Yashir”) in our daily morning prayer.
The second verse contains the phrase “This is my God, and I will make Him attractive.” Since we cannot improve upon God’s essence, our Rabbis have interpreted this to mean that we should try to influence others to be attracted to God and to our Torah tradition.
How can we accomplish this? There are various options suggested in the Midrash and in the Talmud; here are three of them:
(1) We should talk to others about the beauty of our religion. This will make God attractive to them. In doing so, we are Friendly.
(2) We should perform ritual mitzvos in an aesthetically pleasing way. For example, use a fancy tablecloth for the Shabbat meals. Recite kiddush on Friday night with a silver, pewter, or crystal goblet (rather than a paper cup). Decorate your Sukkah. Place an artistic cover on the Torah. This will make our ritual practice, and God, attractive to others. By honoring the mitzvos, we are Reverent.
(3) We should relate to other people by imitating God’s conduct. He is merciful, so we should treat others with compassion. He forgives our sins, so we should be forgiving to others. He is gracious, so we should relate to others graciously. Such ethical conduct will elicit respect for our religious tradition and for God. In this way, we are Kind.
As Scouts, we have a responsibility to act always in a manner that will earn the respect of others. Each individual Scout represents all Scouts. In this week’s Torah reading we are reminded that we also represent God and our Torah tradition. By living up to the standards expected of us as Scouts, we will not only do our “duty to God” but will also successfully meet the challenge of “making God attractive to others.”
My beloved teacher, Rabbi Yitzhak Twersky, never preached to us. He simply modeled the behavior that he wanted us to adopt. He practiced all three of the interpretations listed above, and he was therefore inspiring to Jews and to non-Jews. Throughout his life, he “made God attractive.”
Rabbi David Shapiro
January 7, 2022 – Parsha Bo
In Parasha Bo, the Torah describes the final three plagues. It is a dark chapter in Egypt’s history – literally.
Moses stretches his staff over Egypt and, by morning, an east wind sent by God carries locusts over the entire country. “It covered the sight of all the land and the land was in darkness … .” The locusts ate all of the crops, the greenery on the trees and all the grass. Pharaoh asks Moses to forgive him and “remove from me only this death,” and God sends a west wind and blows the locusts away. But God has hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he again refuses to let the Children of Israel leave. (Exodus 10:13-20)
Then, Moses stretches his hand to heaven, and God sends a deep darkness over Egypt. For three days, “no man could see his brother”. After that, for another three days no one could “rise from his place”. (Exodus 10:22-23) Pharaoh asks Moses to remove the plague, but insists that the Israelites leave their cattle as hostages. Moses refuses, and Pharaoh dismisses him.
Finally, God tells Moses to have the Israelites prepare for the Passover, by roasting a sheep for each family as a special meal, and marking the doorposts and lintels of their houses with the blood of the sheep, as a sign that the people there are Children of Israel. God then passes through all of Egypt, and strikes down the firstborn male in every Egyptian household. Only Pharaoh, who was the firstborn of his family, is spared. He runs to find Moses and Aaron, and says the Israelites should leave Egypt immediately.
All three plagues involve darkness. The plague of locusts covers the land, shutting out the light and consuming all the food of the Egyptians – the darkness of nothing to nourish the body. The plague of darkness is so thick it can be felt; no one could see his brother nor even get up – the darkness of no contact with other people or things. The plague of the death of the firstborn leaves the darkness of the soul in every Egyptian home.
Thus, the Egyptians came to feel the punishment they had inflicted on the Israelites for 210 years by tormenting their bodies with hard labor, by trying to destroy their families and community, and by attempting to kill the firstborn Children of Israel. From this darkness Moses leads his people on the Exodus, to find the light of God’s commandments at Mt. Sinai.
Sometimes we get involved in darkness so thick that it harms us or those around us. We can become so angry that we forget about other people’s feelings and say or do things that are hurtful. We can be so sure of our own ideas that we stop listening to anyone else. We can get so wrapped up in our own lives that we fail to notice the needs of our friends and family.
When do these things, we stop living up to our promise to be Helpful, Friendly, Courteous and Kind.
A Scout is a person who leads the way for others. Lead yourself and others to the light by remembering the Scout Oath and Law.
December 31, 2021 – Parsha Va’eira
Sometimes, when a friend acts in a way that surprises us, we ask in mock astonishment, “Who are you?” This is how we start parasha Va’eira.
Last week, Moses demanded of Pharaoh that he let the Children of Israel leave Egypt for a three day festival to worship God. Not only does Pharaoh refuse, but he decrees the Jews have to make their usual quota of bricks and now have to gather their own straw to make the bricks. The foremen of the Israelites see Moses and Aaron leaving the royal palace. The foremen tell Moses and Aaron that God will judge them because their demand has made the Israelites abhorrent in the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants “to place a sword in their hands to murder us.”
Moses asks God why He has done evil to the Israelites, and why God sent him. Moses says, “From the time I came to Pharaoh to speak in Your Name he did evil to this people, but You did not rescue Your people.”
Now, at the beginning of Va’eira, God answers Moses. “I am Hashem. I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as El Shaddai [Almighty God], but with My Name Hashem I did not make Myself known to them. Moreover, I established My covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their journeying, in which they journeyed.” Rashi teaches that the name “Hashem” (the four-letter name of God) emphasizes that God fulfills divine promises. God is explaining that now is the time the promises to the Patriarchs will be fulfilled.
In last week’s parasha, recall Moses was trying to convince God that he was not the man for the job of liberating the Children of Israel. He said, when I tell them that God has sent me, what shall I say when they ask “What is His Name?” God answered, “I Will Be What I Will Be.” Rabbi Shlomo Riskin (Torah Lights: Shemot) explains that God created everything, and set whatever limits these creations would have. God gave humanity the ability to make their own decisions, making us God’s partners in creating history. So God chose Moses to help make the part of history we know as the Exodus, which in turn would lead to fulfilling God’s promises to the Patriarchs regarding the land we now know as Israel.
God’s names really are just descriptions of what God does. God makes promises and keeps those promises. In this parasha we see the first seven plagues that God sends down on Egypt as the first steps in taking the Children of Israel out of slavery to their promised land.
If the things you do are your names, what “names” do you go by?
December 16, 2021 – Parsha Vayechi
In this week’s parasha, Vayechi, we close the Book of Genesis and the story of the Patriarchs and Matriarchs. Jacob is 147 years old, and has Joseph swear that he will bury his father in Canaan in the Cave of Machpelah, where the other Patriarchs and Matriarchs (except Rachel) are buried.
When Joseph learns that Jacob is ill, he brings his two sons to Jacob for a blessing. Jacob blesses the younger son, Ephraim, before the older son, Manasseh. Jacob also blesses each of his own sons, in a way that foretells something special about their future.
Jacob dies, and Joseph asks Pharaoh’s permission to take his father’s remains to Canaan to bury him, as he swore to Jacob. As the viceroy, Joseph is important to Egypt, and he needs Pharaoh’s permission to leave. Because of the long Egyptian mourning period and journey to Canaan, Joseph has Jacob’s body embalmed. Joseph and his brothers leave to bury Jacob, together with their “households” – servants and older children. The brothers leave their young children and their sheep and cattle in Egypt.
Why do the children and flocks and herds remain in Egypt? Perhaps because taking them will be a hardship on them, or will delay the travel of the brothers to and from Canaan. Rabbanit Sharon Rimon looks at other discussions involving whether the Children of Israel should travel without their young children, sheep and cattle. She suggests that whether the young and the animals stay or go is a sign that the Israelites will return or leave permanently. (“Joseph – From Exile to Redemption” in Torah MiEtzion: New Readings in Tanach, Bereishit).
When Pharaoh told Joseph to bring his family to Egypt, he ordered that wagons be given to Joseph so he and his brothers could bring their small children and wives. (Parasha Vayigash, Genesis 45:19) Just before the Exodus, when Moses has told Pharaoh that the Israelites must go into the Wilderness to worship God, Moses declares, “We shall go with our youth and with our elderly, with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and our cattle … .” Pharaoh does not want the Israelites to leave permanently, and tells Moses that only the men can go. (Parasha Bo, Exodus 10:9-11).
Rabbanit Rimon explains, because Joseph and his brothers willingly left their children, sheep and cattle when they went to Canaan to bury Jacob, that journey was the beginning of the enslavement of the Children of Israel. The Israelites had become comfortable living in the fruitful land of Goshen, and felt at home in Egypt, even though it was filled with idol worship and immorality.
The parasha ends with the return of Joseph and his brothers to Egypt, and Joseph’s death at the age of 110. So closes the story of how the Children of Israel came to live in Egypt for several generations. Soon they will go from lives of privilege and comfort to slavery. The Ramban compared the descent to Egypt and the Israelites’ lives there to the exile of the Jewish people after the destruction of the Second Temple. He saw this as an example of an important principle: Everything that occurred to the Patriarchs is a sign for their descendants. (Ramban on Lech Lecha, Genesis 12:6, and on Vayechi, Genesis 47: 28).
Watch for these signs during the next few months as the Israelites go from the depths of hardship and loss of spirit to receiving the Torah at Mt. Sinai.
December 10, 2021 – Parsha Vayigash
This week, we study Parasha Vayigash – “he approached.” The approach this sentence describes is Judah approaching the Viceroy of Egypt, who Judah and the other brothers do not realize is their brother Joseph. But there are other important approaches we will discover.
In last week’s parasha there is a touching scene where all the brothers are gathered before Joseph. He will decide the fate of the youngest, Benjamin. When the brothers were leaving, Joseph had his servant hide his silver goblet in Benjamin’s saddle bags. Once the brothers begin their journey home to Canaan, Joseph has his servant stop them and search them for the goblet.
Now Judah describes his predicament: When they came to Egypt before to buy grain during the great famine, Joseph said the brothers could not return unless they brought Benjamin. Jacob treasures Benjamin because he and Joseph were the only sons of Jacob’s beloved Rachel, and Jacob believes Joseph is dead. Jacob would only let Benjamin go after Judah promised to look after him. Judah explains this to the second most powerful man in Egypt, and says that if the brothers do not return with Benjamin, it will kill their elderly father.
Joseph is overcome with emotion. He orders everyone but the brothers to leave the room. When he is alone with his brothers, he cries out: “I am Joseph. Is my father still alive?”
The visiting brothers cannot believe the Viceroy is Joseph, and he convinces them by explaining all that has happened to him – a story that none but the other brothers would know. He calms their fears of revenge by explaining that he realizes it was God who put into place all that befell him so that he would be in a position to help his family during the great famine. All the brothers embrace Joseph and he embraces them. He tells them to return to Canaan to bring back their father and their families, because there are still five years of famine to survive.
It has been 22 years since the brothers gave Jacob the bloody coat of Joseph and let him assume his beloved son was killed by a wild animal. As the brothers return home, they realize the news that Joseph is alive could be so startling to their father that it could kill him. This approach is also special. Our tradition tells us the brothers have Asher’s daughter, Serach, go to Jacob and begin singing and playing her harp about Joseph being alive and the ruler of Egypt. This raised his spirits and readied him for the news.
Jacob does not believe his sons when they say Joseph is alive. Joseph anticipated this, so he described to his brothers the last Torah lesson Jacob learned with him before he went to check on his brothers with the flocks. The brothers describe this lesson to Jacob, and he knows that they have spoken with Joseph.
Now Jacob gathers his entire family and begins the journey to see Joseph in Egypt. He fears leaving Canaan, the land that God has promised to his family as long ago as the Covenant of the Parts with Abraham (where God appeared to Abraham in a vision, after which Abraham had a dream [Genesis 15:7]), and go to a place like Egypt where the people worship idols. At night, God appears to him in the last of the great dreams of the Patriarchs. God tells Jacob, “I am the God – God of your father. Have no fear of descending to Egypt, for I shall establish you as a great nation there. I shall descend with you to Egypt, and I shall also surely bring you up. And Joseph shall place his hand on your eyes.” Thus God strengthens Jacob for his approach to Egypt.
So Jacob and his family – 70 souls – and their servants and flocks all enter Egypt. As they do, another magnificent approach occurs, when Joseph, Viceroy of Egypt, goes out in his chariot to meet his father. The Torah gives us the scene: “He appeared before him, fell on his neck, and he wept on his neck excessively.” Our rabbis have discussed to whom the “he” and “his” refer – which person is Joseph and which is Jacob. The Sages of the Talmud explain that the scene describes Joseph falling on his father’s neck and weeping, because Jacob, who never thought he would see his son again, is giving thanks to God by reciting the Shema. In fact, the next sentence says that Israel (Jacob) tells Joseph, “Now I can die, after my having seen your face, because you are still alive.”
Pharaoh has allowed Jacob and his family to settle in the fertile land of Goshen, because they are shepherds. Since the Egyptians worship animals, they dislike cattlemen and shepherds, so letting them settle in a far corner of the country will keep them from offending the Egyptians. It will also hopefully keep the Israelites from following Egyptian customs.
Thus begins our slavery in Egypt. How can it be that our ancestors could be considered enslaved when they were saved from a famine and given a fertile land in which to live? Because before we became slaves in the physical sense, performing backbreaking labor on useless projects, we lived in a land where the people worshipped idols and had cultural practices that were spiritually degrading. We feared entering this land, but all of our approaches that brought us to it were part of the divine plan that, 210 years later, will cause us to approach Mt. Sinai to receive the Torah.
A special note: In following the weekly parasha over the next few months, we will learn of our sojourn in Egypt. We will find that it was a land rich in many things, but not the spiritual values of Torah God wants us to live. Our people will be enslaved there, and it would be natural for us to be angry about that. The people, religion and culture of ancient Egypt are very different from those of modern Egypt. Torah tells us not to reject the Egyptian, because Egypt saved us from famine. (Deuteronomy 23:8) We must not be upset with people now for things that happened in their land 3,500 years ago.
December 3, 2021 – Parsha Mikeitz
This week the drama surrounding Joseph and his brothers continues in Parasha Mikeitz.
Joseph, sold into slavery in Egypt, has met two of Pharaoh’s chamberlains and interpreted their dreams, which turn out just as Joseph explained they would. Now, Pharaoh has had dreams that no one can interpret, and the chamberlain of the cup bearers brings Joseph out of prison to interpret Pharaoh’s dream. Joseph humbly explains that he has no power to interpret dreams, and only explains the dreams as God tells him.
Pharaoh’s dreams are of seven strong cows being devoured by seven weak cows, and seven healthy ears of grain being eaten by seven thin ears of grain. Joseph explains that Egypt will enjoy seven years of good harvests, to be followed by seven years of famine. Joseph explains the two dreams are really one, which means God is prepared to carry out the divine plan for Egypt very soon.
God’s message to Pharaoh – sent in the dream – includes a plan of action that Joseph explains. Pharaoh should appoint a wise man to take charge of the grain harvest during the seven good years, to store it for distribution during the seven years of famine. Pharaoh realizes God’s power and that Joseph understands it, and appoints Joseph his prime minister.
During the seven years of plenty, Joseph sees that grain is stored, so much that the granaries are filled. Joseph also marries Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, the Egyptian court official who bought Joseph. Asenath and Joseph have two sons, Manassah and Ephraim.
When the famine comes, it affects the entire region including Canaan. Jacob sends his sons – all except the youngest, Benjamin – to Egypt to buy grain. In Egypt, they appear before Joseph to buy the grain – Joseph recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him. Joseph asks the brothers leading questions to find out about the welfare of his father and Benjamin, who is the only other son born of Rachel and therefore very close to Joseph.
Joseph tells the brothers that, if they return, they must bring Benjamin if they want to buy grain. The brothers take home grain and, when that is all gone, return to Egypt with Benjamin to purchase more. Before they return to Canaan, Joseph hides his silver goblet in Benjamin’s sack. As the brothers journey home, Joseph sends his servant to stop them, saying they have stolen his goblet. The men empty their sacks, and the goblet is found in Benjamin’s sack. We will learn what happens next week.
The story of the interactions among Joseph and the brothers is the usual theme studied in this parasha. I want to take a moment and discuss the other set of brothers mentioned this week – Manassah and Ephraim.
Manassah means “caused me to forget”. Joseph named him so because with the birth of his son, God had caused Joseph to forget his hardship and his longing for his father’s household. Ephraim, from “to be fruitful,” caused Joseph to be thankful God had made him fruitful in Egypt, the land of his suffering. Even though these two boys grew up at the Egyptian court, surrounded by idol-worshippers and people who lacked good character, the good influence of their father made them Morally Straight, Reverent to God, and Obedient to God’s commandments. That is why Jewish parents bless their sons, “May you grow to be like Ephraim and Manassah.”
May YOU grow to be like Ephraim and Manassah.
Shabbat shalom and happy Hanukkah!
November 26, 2021 – Parsha Vayeishev
This week’s parasha, Vayeishev, is best known for the story of Joseph and his brothers. It also reveals the beginning of both the Jewish people’s descent to Egyptian slavery and our ultimate freedom.
Joseph’s story follows a pattern in Genesis – the younger brother takes leadership of the family and the older brother(s) resent this. First Isaac, not Ishmael, becomes Abraham’s spiritual heir. Then Esau sells his birthright – the spiritual leadership of the family – to Jacob.
Now comes Joseph, who is Jacob’s favorite. Jacob even gives Joseph a wonderful coat of many colors. Joseph tattles to his father about his older brothers. He tells his brothers about dreams in which he rules over them. Naturally, his brothers resent and dislike him. The older brothers throw Joseph into a pit, then sell him to a caravan of Midianites. Joseph is taken to Egypt, where he is sold to one of Pharoah’s chamberlains. (Spoiler Alert: Jacob’s sons never tell their father what happened to Joseph, and Jacob is really sad for the next 20 years because he does not know what happened to his beloved son.)
At this point, the Torah turns to the story of Tamar. Tamar was the daughter of Noah’s son, Shem, a great scholar and teacher. Tamar and Joseph’s older brother, Judah, have twin boys. The first twin born, Perez, became the ancestor of King David, who in turn will be the ancestor of the Messiah (Moshiach). Moshiach will be the leader of the Jewish people when God brings forth our freedom and peace for all the world.
This is the destiny of two brothers: Joseph starts our journey to Egypt, where the Jewish people will follow him and live in slavery for generations until our first redemption, and Judah starts the line of Moshiach, the leader of our final redemption.
These things were foretold when God first promised Abraham that he and Sarah would be the ancestors of countless descendants. At the Covenant of the Parts, in Parasha Lech Lecha, God told Abraham: “Know with certainty that your offspring shall be aliens in a land not their own, they will serve them, and they will oppress them 400 years. … ” This means 400 years of slavery is coming, which is the period from this covenant to the Exodus. God continued, “To your descendants have I given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates River; the Kennite, the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite … .” These lands will become part of Israel when Moshiach comes, as described in Isaiah 11:14.
But before we begin the story of our slavery, we will go through weeks filled with family drama and deception, heartbreak and sacrifice. As you read about it, you might look for whether the family members treat each other according to the Scout Law. Certainly the way Joseph’s brothers, who are considered righteous men, treated him in this parasha do not seem Friendly, Loyal or Kind. Is there some greater purpose in what they are doing, even if they do not realize it?
Don’t miss a parasha of this exciting tale.
November 19, 2021 – Parsha Vayishlach
This week, in Parasha Vayishlach, we pick up Jacob’s story as he leaves the home of Laban, his father-in-law, in Padan-aram. Jacob has lived there for 20 years and is traveling home to Canaan.
Jacob’s brother Esau lives in Canaan, and Jacob fears Esau still hates him because Jacob “stole” Esau’s birthright and blessing. Always the example of a good Scout, Jacob wants to Be Prepared. Jacob is very righteous, so the malachim (divine beings we think of as angels) help him. He sends malachim to seek out Esau. They return with the news that Esau and an army of 400 men are coming to Jacob!
Jacob takes a number of precautions. He divides his family, servants, herds and flocks into two camps so that if Esau strikes down one camp, the other will survive. He prays for protection. He tries to appease Esau: The next morning, he sends several groups of servants to Esau. Each group has very impressive gifts – flocks of goats, ewes and rams, and donkeys. Jacob orders his servants to tell Esau that these gifts are “Your servant’s, Jacob. It is a tribute sent to my lord, to Esau, and behold he himself is behind us.”
Jacob gets up in the middle of the night and takes his wives and 11 sons and crosses the ford of the River Jabbok. He returns alone to the other side, where he encounters a man and they wrestle until the break of dawn. The man cannot overcome him, so he hits Jacob in his hip-socket and dislocates it. By now, Jacob suspects the “man” is really one of the malachim. The man tells Jacob to let him go, and Jacob refuses unless the man blesses him. The man then says, “No longer will your name be called Jacob, but Israel, for you have fought with something divine and with man and have overcome.” (In Hebrew yisra is “to overcome” and El is one of God’s names.)
In the morning Esau and Jacob meet, have a tearful encounter, and reconcile. Jacob continues on his way with his family and household.
As part of Being Prepared, Jacob prayed. Part of his prayer especially appeals to me: “I have been diminished by all the kindnesses and by all the truth that You have done your servant; for with my staff I crossed the Jordan and now I have become two camps.” (Genesis 32:11). I like several things about this prayer.
· Jacob recognizes that he needs God’s help. Being Trustworthy means not only that people can trust you, but that you are willing to trust others who are worthy of trust. Jacob trusts God.
· Jacob is thankful. He says he has been diminished by all the kindnesses and truth God has shown him. Rashi explains Jacob fears that, since the time God blessed him many years before, he has sinned and is not worthy to be saved from Esau. By being thankful to God, Jacob is Loyal to God.
· Jacob is humble. He acknowledges to God that “with my staff I crossed the Jordan and now I have become two camps.” This means when he crossed the Jordan River to go to Padan-aram 20 years earlier, all he had was a staff – a walking stick. Now, because of God’s blessings, he has such a large family and household of servants and so many animals, he can fill two camps. Recognizing God’s importance in your life is the best way to be Reverent.
There is one other Scout connection I like about this prayer. To symbolize how he started with nothing, Jacob describes himself as having only a staff when he first crossed the Jordan. This is a piece of equipment that Scouts have had since the very beginning. When Baden-Powell described the first Scout uniform, it included a staff because he found it so useful in hiking and camping as to be necessary. A staff can be found almost anywhere and, if you make one from a strong branch that has recently fallen off a tree or is being pruned, it costs nothing. The Torah – our guide to living – is something else that is necessary as we hike along through life and can be acquired by everyone.
Next week we begin to learn about the Children of Israel’s journey down to Egypt, leading to centuries of slavery and then redemption. During this journey we will see leaders use staffs many times, and have the opportunity to think about what that represents.
So get ready for a trek through an inspiring story! Cinch your belt tight, double knot your hiking shoes, grab your hat and your water bottle. And don’t forget your staff.
November 11, 2021 – Parsha Vayeitzei
Today, I write in honor of our veterans on Veterans Day.
This week, in parasha Vayeitzei, a lot happens to Jacob. And we meet some very important people we will mention continually throughout the rest of the Torah.
Last week, Isaac told his son, Jacob, not to marry a Canaanite woman, but to go to Haran and marry a woman from his mother’s family. Jacob follows his father’s advice and, in Haran, meets a beautiful girl by a spring where the sheep drink water (just like how Eliezer found Rebecca for Isaac). The girl is Rachel.
Rachel takes Jacob home where he is greeted by Rachel’s father Laban. Laban is Rebecca’s brother. Laban is shrewd and selfish. In order to permit Jacob to marry Rachel, Laban requires that Jacob work for him for seven years. At the end of that time, just before the wedding, Laban switches brides on Jacob – Laban arranges for Rachel’s older sister, Leah, to be married to Jacob. Jacob cannot tell which sister is which because the bride wears a thick veil over her face.
After the wedding, when Jacob finds he has been tricked and complains to Laban, Laban says Jacob can have Rachel as a wife also, but has to work another seven years. Jacob does this, but has very little to support his family. Jacob has been tending Laban’s sheep, and Laban now allows Jacob to keep some of the sheep as wages. Over the next six years Jacob grows his flock to a large number. Jacob has now worked for Laban 20 years.
Throughout this time, Jacob has also been growing his family. His beloved Rachel has not had a child, but Leah has had several. As was the custom then, Rachel has Jacob marry her servant, Bilhah, to have children that Rachel can help raise. (Remember that when Sarah could not have children, she urged Abraham to marry her servant, Hagar). Bilhah has children. Then Leah stops having children, and has Jacob marry her servant Zilpah, who had children. Finally, Rachel has a son. In all, Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah have 12 sons and a daughter.
The 12 sons of Jacob (whose name is later changed to Israel, as we learn in next week’s parasha) are the fathers of the 12 tribes of the Jewish people, and the descendants of these 12 sons become the Children of Israel whom God will redeem from Egypt and bring to the land promised to the Patriarchs that we now know as Israel.
So, we see that the Patriarchs and Matriarchs were not only busy with living their own lives, they were busy creating the Jewish people – you and me.
November 5, 2021 – Parsha Toldos
This week, in Parasha Toldos, through the experiences of our ancestors Isaac and his wife, Rebecca, and their son Jacob, we learn a difficult lesson about dealing with people.
We see several events the Patriarchs and Matriarchs have experienced before.
- Rebecca is unable to bear a child, like Sarah before her. Isaac prayed for children, and God blessed Rebecca with twin boys, Esau, the first-born, and Jacob.
- There is again a famine in Canaan. God tells Isaac not to go to Egypt, so he approaches the king of the Philistines, Abimelech.
- Because Rebecca is very beautiful and Isaac fears a powerful man will kill him to marry Rebecca, Isaac tells Abimelech she is his sister, not his wife. Abimelech saw this explanation before with Abraham and Sarah. He learns Rebecca is Isaac’s wife, and becomes upset because he actually wanted Rebecca for his own.
- Isaac’s flocks grow very large, and his shepherds argue with the Canaanite shepherds over water, just as when Abraham lived there. Isaac and Abimelech ultimately make peace over the ownership of the wells, because Isaac gives up his claims to certain wells and digs a new well.
From these experiences, Isaac and Rebecca learned selfish people like Abimelech act true to their characters, and act selfishly all the time.
This lesson in the nature of selfish people is helpful in understanding the other big story in this parasha.
The twin boys are very different. Esau is a wild man. Jacob is a student of Torah.
Esau comes in from hunting one day and is very hungry. Jacob has just finished cooking a bowl of lentil stew. Esau tells Jacob to give him some of the stew, and Jacob says he will do so only if Esau sells him Esau’s birthright. While this seems selfish of Jacob, his motive is honorable. The birthright is not about money, land or flocks – it is the right to lead the family’s religious practices. Jacob knows that, if Esau will give this important position up for a bowl of lentils, Esau is not a good choice to have the birthright because he will not honor his responsibility to lead the family in worshipping God. Esau agrees to the bargain, and gets the lentils.
When Isaac is very old, he asks Esau to prepare him a delicious meal of wild game, and he will bless Esau before he dies. Rebecca overhears this request. She knows that Esau is not the right person to lead the family, so she carries out a plan to make sure Isaac blesses Jacob. She prepares a wonderful meal for Isaac, and tells Jacob to put on Esau’s clothes and some wool skins on his arms and neck, to pretend to be Esau. The disguised Jacob takes the dinner to Isaac who gives his blessing of prosperity to Jacob, including that “you will be a lord to your kinsmen, and your mother’s sons will prostrate themselves to you”. (Genesis 27: 29) When Esau learns his younger brother has gotten the best blessing, he cries, and Isaac gives him a lesser blessing.
Fortunately for Jacob and the Jewish people, Rebecca was very wise and had been blessed with great insight. Not everyone can correctly anticipate other people’s actions.
However, most people do react to us based on our actions. If I act selfishly, other people will believe I will always be selfish. If I am thoughtful of others when I act, other people expect I will treat them respectfully and fairly.
October 29, 2021 – Parsha Chayei Sarah
In this week’s parasha, Chayei Sarah, we learn some things about our people as we start to move from generation to generation.
Sarah dies at the age of 127. Abraham spends a large sum of money to purchase the Cave of Machpelah as a burial place for her. He will someday be buried next to her, and the cave becomes the final resting place of Isaac and Rebecca, and Jacob and Leah. It is in the town of Hebron, and you can still visit it today.
Abraham wants Isaac to marry and raise a family, so he sends his trusted servant, Eliezer, to his homeland of Haran to find a wife for Isaac. Abraham prefers to seek Isaac’s wife in Haran, because his neighbors in Canaan are not moral people, and he wants Isaac to have a righteous wife who will help Isaac raise moral children.
Eliezer wants to find a girl who is good-hearted. He prays that God will identify the right girl by having her offer to draw water from the local spring for Eliezer and the ten camels he has brought. No sooner does Eliezer arrive at the spring than Rebecca, Abraham’s niece, appears and offers to draw water for Eliezer and the camels!
Eliezer meets Rebecca’s family, including her brother, Laban. Eliezer explains what he wants, and Rebecca agrees to come to Canaan to marry Isaac. Her family gives her an interesting blessing: “Our sister, may you come to be thousands of myriads, and may your offspring inherit the gate of its foes.”
The first part of the blessing is a recognition of the promise that God made to Abraham, that God “will greatly increase your offspring.” (Genesis 22:17). The second part of the blessing is a little unusual, “may your offspring inherit the gate of its foes.”
The obvious meaning of this blessing is that Rebecca’s descendants will be victorious in battle. From our knowledge of Jewish history, we know that this will not always be the case. The famous Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehudah Berlin (1817-1893), known as the Netziv, interprets this blessing differently. He points out that the gate of a city was the place where the judges and elders gathered, and says that the blessing means Rebecca’s offspring should be so highly regarded for their honesty and wisdom that even their enemies will ask their counsel.
The Netziv gave us a good lesson. In most places, we Jews are a small part of the population. But by being honest and using our knowledge and talents for the benefit of our communities, we can earn the respect of people, even those who may not know us well. One proof of this lesson was the career of Rabbi Lord Sacks (HaRav Ya’akov Zvi ben David Arieh z’’l), the late Chief Rabbi of the Great Britain, who passed away a year ago this past Tuesday. He was greatly admired by Jews and non-Jews alike, and his death brought remarks of condolence from many parts of the world, including the British royal family.
October 22, 2021 – Parsha Vayeira
This week, I offer our d’var Torah in memory of my father-in-law, Milton Freedman (Mendel ben Sholom), whose jahrzeit was this week. He was the grandfather of five Eagle Scouts. Like our Patriarch Abraham, he was a generous, caring and gracious host.
One of the things I like about the heroes of Torah is that they were men and women of action. They spoke little and did much. We see an example of this in our parasha this week, Vayeira.
Abraham was such a person of action. He was the most hospitable of men, and loved to entertain guests – an important trait when you live in a wilderness. At age 99, he had just finished circumcising himself and was recovering. Always on the lookout for a traveler who could use rest and a good meal, he was sitting at the entrance to his tent on the plains of Mamre.
God performed the mitzvah of bikkur cholim (visiting the sick) for Abraham. But instead of sending food, because Abraham loved to entertain guests, God sent three very special guests to visit – malachim (heavenly beings usually called “angels”).
Abraham, despite recovering from his painful operation, rushed to do his own mitzvah. He ran toward the men – he did not know they were malachim – and asked them to stay. He then ran to organize his household to prepare a fine meal for his guests.
We can learn much from Abraham, not only in the generous way we treat our guests, but also in seeking out those who might need our hospitality. Have you ever noticed that, when a friend of your family is ill, your family takes over a meal for them? Does your troop or synagogue collect supplies for a food pantry that serves people in need? The meal not only nourishes your guest’s body, but the act of kindness nourishes the soul. And your gift makes you feel good, as you get to be Friendly and Kind.
You can practice Abraham’s way of treating guests when you camp. Invite one or two of the adult leaders to join you at a meal. Make the menu extra special. Or bake a great dessert – like a dutch oven cobbler – and invite another patrol to share it with you. Your gifts are not only tasty, but also a sign of friendship and caring.
If you treat everyone like a guest no matter where you are, you may find that the world is your home.
October 15, 2021 – Parsha Lech Lecha
This week, I study in memory of my dear mother, Ethel Poliakoff Block, Etel bas Avraham, whose jahrzeit is tonight and tomorrow. She was a wonderful supporter of Scouting, and was the sister, mother, grandmother and great-grandmother of many Scouts.
This week’s parasha, Lech Lecha, starts the story of the Jewish people with the first Jews, Abram (from av Aram, the “father” or “elder of Aram,” the land of his birth) and Sarai (“my princess”). Later in the parasha, God will change their names to Abraham and Sarah. The parasha also introduces several themes we will see repeated in the Torah.
At the end of last week’s parasha, Abram’s father, Terah, begins a journey. He takes Abram, Sarai and Lot – Terah’s grandson and Abram’s nephew – from Ur Kasdim to the land of Canaan. On the way, they stop in Haran and settle there, where Terah dies. Lech Lecha begins with Abram, Sarah and Lot in Haran, where God tells Abram, “Go for yourself from your land, from your relatives, and from your father’s house to the land that I will show you.”
On the trip, while in Shechem, there is a famine, and Abram and his family travel to Egypt. Because Sarai is beautiful, Abram fears he will be killed so someone powerful can take her as a wife, so he tells Sarai to say she is his sister. Pharaoh is told of Sarai’s beauty, and he treats Abram well, but he takes Sarai to the palace. Because Pharaoh acted inappropriately, God punishes Pharaoh and his family and servants with a plague, and he comes to understand why he is being punished. Pharaoh becomes angry with Abram for lying about Sarai being his sister, and throws Abram and his family out of Egypt.
Abram and Lot both acquire many cattle and sheep, and it is difficult for all of them to live in the same pastures. Abram tells Lot to choose one part of the land in which to live, and Abram will live in another part. Lot decides to live in the valley of the Jordan River, near the city of Sodom.
There is a war in the Jordan valley, and Lot is captured. Abram takes 318 disciples, whom he has taught to worship God, and saves Lot. The king of Sodom offers Abram some of the spoils of war, but he refuses them, for fear that people will say the king of Sodom made Abram wealthy, instead of God.
God promises Abram he will inherit the land of Canaan. Abram asks for a sign, and God instructs Abram to cut three cows, three goats and three rams in half, and to arrange the pieces in two rows, together with a turtledove and a dove. This event is called the “Covenant of the Parts.” Abram then falls into a deep sleep. God says to Abram:
“Know with certainty that your offspring shall be aliens in a land not their own, they will serve them, and they will oppress them 400 years. But also the nation that they shall serve, I shall judge, and afterwards they shall leave with great wealth. As for you, you shall come to your ancestors in peace, you shall be buried in a good old age. And the fourth generation shall return here, for the iniquity of the Amorite shall not yet be full until then.” (Genesis 15: 13-16)
Because Sarai is childless, she encourages Abram to take her maidservant, Hagar, as a wife, which Abram does, and Hagar bears a son, Ishmael.
God makes a covenant with Abram that he will be a father of a multitude of nations and changes Abram’s name to Abraham (taken from av hamon, “father of a multitude”). Abram and his male descendants are to seal this covenant by brit milah – circumcision – and he and Ishmael and all the men in his household are circumcised. God also changes Sarai’s name to Sarah (from “my princess” to “princess” because instead of being a princess of Abraham’s household, she became a princess of a multitude).
Those who know the stories of the Torah may have noticed some of the themes I mentioned at the beginning.
– God sends people on journeys.
– God tests the Patriarchs and Matriarchs.
– Often the journeys are intended to leave civilization so the people can become civilized.
– When there is a famine, people leave the land that was promised us by God that nourishes the spirit (Canaan) and go to a land where there is food for the body but not the spirit (Egypt).
– The Matriarchs have difficulty having children.
– The Patriarchs are very independent and want to partner with God, not kings who worship idols.
– God tells Abram that his descendants will be slaves in a foreign land but will be freed after 400 years.
– God changes people’s names in connection with great plans or accomplishments.
Be looking for these themes as we go through the rest of the Torah.
October 8, 2021 – Parsha Noach
This week, we read Parasha Noach – the story of Noah.
At the end of Parasha Bereishis, God says he has seen the evil ways that have been taken up by both humans and animals, and he is going to destroy all living beings, except Noah and his family. So God commands Noah to build an ark to hold those people and animals who are to be saved. This task takes 120 years, which gives people plenty of time to see what Noah is doing and get the idea that they should repent and change their ways. Unfortunately, no one repents or changes, and the world is destroyed by the flood that lasts for 40 days and nights.
After the flood, subsequent generations thrive in a world where everyone speaks the same language. The people sought glory for themselves and forgot their purpose of serving God. They thought that, if they built a great tower they could keep God from dispersing them. But God ends their efforts by causing everyone to speak separate languages, which makes it impossible to continue the building project.
One of the many interesting features of the parasha is that it starts and ends with a genealogy of Noah. The opening sentence of the parasha is “These are the offspring of Noah – Noah was a righteous man, perfect in his generations.” The last two chapters outline the generations of Noah’s children again, starting with the eldest, Japheth, and ending with the youngest and most righteous, Shem. Shem is the ancestor of Abraham.
The rabbis discuss the bookending of Noah’s generations in the parasha. Some say that Noah was only righteous when compared to the other people in his generation, who were evil. Others say that, if Noah had lived in Abraham’s generation, Noah would have been even more righteous because he would have lived among other righteous people, like Abraham and Sarah.
The rabbis do not come to a consensus on this subject, but the discussion reminds us that, if we want to live a good life, we would do well to think about those who came before us and those who will come after us. We want to take our best characteristics of the past and “be prepared” to improve them.
If there are things in your life that are great – your habits, talents, relationships with family and friends – use those and strengthen them so that future generations will say “she made the most of her life”. If your habits, the use of your talents and your relationships do not help you stay healthy, be helpful, and act productively, then change them so that future generations will say “she had the strength to overcome the obstacles that faced her”.
Yours in Scouting,
October 1, 2021 – Parsha Bereishit
I hope everyone had wonderful holidays during the last several weeks, and has begun the New Year with joy. (That reminds me, I need to stop writing 5781 on my checks.)
This week, we again start the weekly cycle of Torah portions, with Parasha Bereishis. Of course, we think of it as the creation of the universe. Did you realize it is also the creation of the Boy Scouts?
In the very first chapter of the Torah God makes everything there is just by saying things. “God said, ‘Let there be light’”. (v. 3) “God said, “Let there be a firmament [the heavens]’”. (v. 6)
In fact, Pirke Avos (Ethics of the Fathers), a book of the Mishnah, explains, “With ten Divine Statements the world was created. And what does this come to teach? Is it not evident that it could have been created with one Divine Statement?” (5:1)
In his commentary on this verse, the great Italian Torah scholar Rabbi Ovadiah Sforno (1470-1550) points out that certainly God could have created everything with just one utterance. Instead, God chose to use a series of creations progressing to the creation that was in God’s image and likeness, Mankind. (Genesis 1:26) Sforno explains our job is to assist God by trying to perfect oneself and the world, thereby trying to be in God’s image and likeness.
As Jews, we do this by trying to live by the Torah. Scouting takes many Torah principles and puts them into a form – the Scout Oath, Law and Slogan – that young people of all faiths can accept and use as guides for living. Just as the Torah helps us perfect ourselves and the world, so does Scouting.
It’s OK that we are not perfect. God’s method of creation was meant for us to keep improving ourselves. So as you work on perfecting your practice of the Scout Oath and Law, you are continuing the work God began with creation.
September 24, 2021 – Shabbat of Sukkot (Intermediate Days)
We are in the middle of the festival of Sukkot, when we get to camp out in our makeshift huts and recall the kinds of booths our ancestors lived in during the Jewish people’s travels in the Wilderness.
It’s interesting how Sukkot is just a few days after Yom Kippur, and how they are counterpoints to one another.
• On Yom Kippur, we eat nothing and spend an evening and the next day in a well-constructed synagogue or temple. On Sukkot, we eat nice meals, but spend our time in the makeshift sukkah.
• On Yom Kippur, we think about big issues that have long-term effects, such as what we may have done that hurt other people or how we broke God’s commandments, and how we can go about fixing those mistakes. On Sukkot, we think about immediate issues, such as whether it will be pleasant while we eat dinner in the sukkah, or whether it will rain or be hot, making it difficult to live in the sukkah for a few hours or the coming day.
• On Yom Kippur, though we may be in a large sanctuary, we turn our thoughts inward and think about them privately. On Sukkot, we invite guests to enjoy our meals in our small sukkah. In fact, many people have the custom of Ushpizin, in which we invite famous guests into our sukkah for our evening meal (just like we invite Elijah the Prophet into our homes on Pesach). These guests are the seven “faithful shepherds” of the Jewish people – Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron and King David.
• On Yom Kippur, we downplay our possessions and our attention to ourselves – we do not wear leather shoes, do not “anoint” (like wearing cologne or perfume), and many people wear white clothes, which are rather plain, as a sign of purity. On Sukkot we decorate the sukkah with fruit, flowers and flags, and have the nicest Arbah Minim (four species) we can buy – a beautiful etrog (a large lemon-like fruit) and a long date palm branch around which are bundled myrtle and willow branches.
• Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement. Sukkot is called Ziman Simchasenu, the Time of Our Gladness.
So, first we went through Yom Kippur, where we fasted, gave up certain comforts and prayed for forgiveness for the mistakes we made. These are spiritual things. Now, on Sukkot, we are more involved in our physical world.
Both are important and need attention. And they are connected. You gave up physical things – food, nice clothes, comfortable shoes – to get in touch with your spirit. Now, as you get in touch with good food, the companionship of friends and the outdoorsy surroundings of your sukkah, do you also feel spiritually uplifted? Maybe we need to have things – and to get away from things – in order to be well-rounded spiritually.
Chag sameach (happy holiday) and Shabbat shalom,
September 17, 2021 – Parasha Haazinu
I hope everyone had a meaningful Yom Kippur.
We tend to put a lot of importance on the “last” things we hear from people.
You may have spent weeks in class studying a subject, but when your teacher tells you there will be a test next week and says “be sure to study these topics” you listen very closely.
Your troop may have practiced certain skills for several weeks in preparation for a campout, but when your senior patrol leader gives you final instructions before a patrol competition, pay special attention.
A famous person may have written volumes and spoken thousands of words during his or her career, but we place extra meaning on the person’s “last words”.
This week, in Parasha Haazinu, we receive the last words of Moses. Next week, we will learn the last blessings that our great teacher gave the Children of Israel, but this week, we receive our his last thoughts about what he considered most important.
These last words are in the form of a song of 43 stanzas. I think the best summary are several sentences at the beginning (Deuteronomy 32:3-6):
When I call out the Name of the Lord, ascribe greatness to our God.
The Rock! Perfect is His work, for all His paths are justice; a God of faith without iniquity, righteous and fair is He.
Corruption is not His – the blemish is His children’s, a perverse and twisted generation.
Is it to the Lord that you do this, O vile and unwise people? Is he not your Father, your Master? Has he not created you and firmed you?
These stanzas introduce the theme of the song: God is perfect, righteous and fair. When the Children of Israel abandon the Torah and worship other gods or treat people wickedly, bad things happen. The Israelites must take responsibility for these consequences.
As the many-times-great grandchildren of the Children of Israel, we should pay special attention to Moses’ last words. The Torah teaches us to worship God and to be fair, kind and just as taught by the Torah God has given us. We are responsible for doing these things.
This theme is one we could well use as a guide in the coming year. I hope you follow Moses’ advice and have a year of good things.
Shana tova and Shabbat shalom!
September 10, 2021 – Yom Kippur
Shanah Tovah – Happy New Year!
This week’s parasha is Vayeilech, in which we learn about some of the things that happen on the last day of Moses’ life. On that day, Moses installs Joshua as his successor. Because Yom Kippur is next Wednesday night and Thursday, instead of studying Vayeilech, we prepare for Yom Kippur with one of my favorite divrei Torah, by Eagle Scout Jordan Block.
Yom Kippur is coming. We’re currently in the special time between Rosh Hashonah and Yom Kippur called the Ten Days of “Repentance” – this is an approximation of the Hebrew word t’shuvah. These days are designated to get forgiveness from other people and to forgive them as part of the process of getting forgiveness from God. Someone once asked me a fascinating question: “What responsibility do I have to forgive someone who asks for forgiveness? What if their request isn’t satisfying or if my forgiveness isn’t genuine?”
Maimonides says that if one person wrongs another, the wrongdoer has to compensate and appease the wronged person. If the wronged guy refuses to be appeased and doesn’t forgive, the wrongdoer has to come back and ask again with friends of the wronged person, even a second and third time. If the wronged person refuses to be appeased entirely and will not forgive, he becomes the sinner, and the wrongdoer has no more sin. Maimonides goes on to say it is forbidden to be obdurate (hardhearted) and not allow yourself to be appeased. You should forgive sincerely and willingly even if you were greatly troubled and hurt.
You should expect a sincere apology. Forgiveness is difficult in many situations and sometimes even impossible. However, it is greatly to your benefit and to his benefit to forgive someone. Therefore, it makes sense to do whatever you can to forgive someone. When he asks insincerely, you might say, “I want to forgive you, but it’s hard because …” and hopefully you can help him understand how you feel. That way, he can sympathize or empathize and come to ask sincerely.
It’s very important to forgive sincerely, because if one doesn’t it leaves a tear in the fabric of reality called an averah. Basically, a piece of the world was destroyed, and the two parties have a chance to repair it together. If they don’t, God will want an answer as to why they didn’t repair the world. If the wrongdoer didn’t ask sincerely, it’s his responsibility, and if the wronged person didn’t forgive, it’s his responsibility. Furthermore, it seems bigger for the wronged person. If he forgives, he can fix something he didn’t even break and get credit for that, but if he doesn’t forgive, he not only misses that opportunity, but he breaks something else, and he’ll have to answer for both of those.
Finally, what can such a person do on Yom Kippur? God treats us with midah k’neged midah, measure for measure. If the wronged person who has not forgiven later asks God for forgiveness, why should he deserve it? God may say, “Forgiveness? What does forgiveness have to do with you? You don’t forgive. I should forgive you?”
So, too, with someone who forgives even without a good reason, God can forgive with no good reason. In fact, God taught us a formula to ask for Divine forgiveness, with the beautiful prayer we chant when we take out the Torah on the Festivals, called the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy: “Hashem, Hashem, El Rachum V’chanun … ” – “Hashem, Hashem, God, Compassionate and Gracious, Slow to Anger, and Abundant in Kindness and Truth, Preserver of Kindness for thousands of generations. Forgiver of Iniquity, Willful Sin, and Error, and Who Cleanses.” (Exodus 34:6-7). God taught Moses this prayer after the Children of Israel worshipped the Golden Calf, only six weeks after God gave the Ten Commandments.
Even if it’s hard, you should try to do as God does for humankind, and forgive.
September 3, 2021 – Parsha Nitzavim
“On my honor, I will do my best, to do my duty, …”
The Scout Oath. You’ve said it a hundred times at meetings. You promise to do your duty to God, your country, and yourself, to obey the Scout Law, to help other people, and to keep yourself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.
Sometimes when we don’t act according to the Scout Oath or Law, someone will remind us that we’ve promised to act in a certain way, and we are obligated to carry out that promise. But can we be obligated to do something when we don’t make a promise?
Sure can. It happened about 3,000 years ago, and is described in this week’s parasha, Nitzavim.
The parsha begins by Moses gathering the people together. It’s the day before he dies. He says “You are standing today, all of you, before the Lord, your God.” He goes on to describe everyone who is gathered there – the heads of tribes, elders, officers, men, children, women, those who have converted and the people who draw water and chop wood. With everyone together, he has the people reaffirm their covenant with God – that the Jews will be God’s people, and will be rewarded with a good life in Israel. If they go astray and begin to believe that the good things they enjoy are due to their own work, and not God, and wander to idol worship, they will be cursed by being removed from the Land of Israel.
Having brought together all the Children of Israel, from the most distinguished to the most humble, Moses then joins together those in front of him with those to come until the end of time: “Not with you alone do I seal this covenant and this curse, but with whomever is here, standing with us today before the Lord, our God, and with whomever is not here with us today.”
Moses ends by explaining that the Torah’s commandments are not far away: “It is not in heaven … Nor is it across the sea. … Rather the matter is very near to you – in your mouth and your heart – to perform it.”
So, our ancestors accepted this covenant for themselves and for us generations ago. Even today, the parents of Jewish baby boys reaffirm the covenant for their sons with a bris and make similar promises at the naming of a baby girl.
But it’s up to us – you and me – to carry out what our parents and grandparents for thousands of years have promised us to do.
Next week we will start the new year. This is a good time to think about what it means to be Jewish, and pick some things that will reaffirm the promise of the generations to live a Jewish life: Give charity, do acts of kindness, thank God for the good things you have, study the Torah portion.
After all, Moses had confidence – he said you could do it!
August 27, 2021 – Parsha Ki Savo
This week, in parasha Ki Savo, the Torah instructs us about the mitzvah of Bikurim, the First Fruits. Each year after entering the Land of Israel, each family is to bring some of the first of its harvest to the kohen at the Temple. The First Fruits come only from the seven special foods associated with the Land – wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates. The offering is a symbol that everything we have is to be dedicated to God’s service, in thanks for God having given us everything we have.
So in return for getting everything we have, how much do we have to offer as thanks? The Mishnah (Peah 1:1) teaches that there is no minimum amount required in offering the Bikurim. The requirement is that the offering must be from the First Fruits, not that it has to be a lot of the First Fruits.
The importance of the Bikurim being the first of the harvest relates to the idea that the first of anything holds special importance. First is new to us. We are excited to experience it. First shows us that our efforts to create something have been successful. So we recall that God has blessed us by being our partner in creation, and we thank God for this gift.
This is a great lesson as we start the new year soon.
When we experience new things, we should recognize that God has brought us to these events. If they are enjoyable – make a new friend, learn a new game, get a new book – it will be easy to thank God for them.
If they are difficult – meet someone who is sick, study a hard subject, have someone do something mean to us – we have an opportunity to think about what value we can get out of the experience and that we should be thankful for it thought that may be hard. Perhaps we have learned a lesson, or grown stronger, or worked together with a friend to get through a problem.
Maybe the new experience will give us an opportunity to do a Good Turn. Remember, no minimum amount required.
August 20, 2021 – Parsha Ki Seitzei
Did you ever ask your Scoutmaster a question and were told “Have you asked your patrol leader?”
Or maybe you told one of the other leaders you wanted to learn how to tie a certain kind of knot, and got the response “Is that in the Boy Scout Handbook?”
Perhaps these discussions left you unhappy or frustrated. After all, the adults you talked to probably knew the answer. Why did they send you away?
Because if they told you, all they would accomplish is to give you information, without anyone really learning anything.
When you get information from your patrol leader, he either knows and gets to practice explaining things to you, or he has to learn so he can teach you, or the two of you learn it together. When you find out something for yourself, as when you read a book, you not only learn the new skill, you also learn something about the process of learning. Next time you want information, instead of thinking you have to go to one of the adults, you know that the troop’s youth leaders and your Boy Scout Handbook are sources of information you can use.
One of the most interesting lessons of this week’s parasha, Ki Seitzei, uses the same principle. The Torah (Deuteronomy 22:6-7) teaches us the mitzvah that before you take young birds you must first send away the mother bird.
The reason for this seems pretty simple – even animals love their young and try to protect them. If the mother bird sees her young being taken away, she will be very distressed, even more so than if the young are removed while she is off and she comes back to see her young are gone.
The Sages of the Talmud suggested that God gave us this mitzvah because God has mercy on the mother bird. The Ramban disagreed, and explained that God gave us this mitzvah not because of Divine feelings of mercy, but so that mankind will learn to be merciful. If people are allowed to do cruel things – like taking away the young birds while the mother watches – they will act cruelly in other things. If people learn to respect the feelings of the mother bird, it will be a lesson for dealing with every living thing.
So, sometimes a lesson or a mitzvah is just about doing a specific thing. Sometimes it is about how to do everything.
August 13, 2021 – Parsha Shoftim
This week’s portion is Parasha Shoftim (judges), which begins with a description of various community officers, like judges, whom the Children of Israel will appoint when they enter the Land. Very impressive, to have a job description written by God.
But God understood that authority needed limits. When America’s Founding Fathers (surely after consulting with the Founding Mothers) wrote the Constitution, they included checks and balances, by which each of the three branches of government – legislative, executive and judicial – would impose limits on each other so that no branch became too powerful. The limits God put on the officers were to make sure their power was used within the Jewish constitution, the Torah.
In this same vein, the portion teaches that while the leading judges acting together as the Great Sanhedrin were empowered to interpret what the Torah meant, the most learned of the sages was not permitted to hand down a ruling that contradicted the Great Sanhedrin.
Even the king would have limits on what he could do. The Torah tells us that the people will set over themselves a king whom God shall choose. But there were limitations. The king had to be Jewish. He could not have too many horses, or too many wives, or too much gold and silver.
The Torah’s explanation of two of these prohibitions gives us a clue to the deeper meaning of why they are prohibited.
- The limitation on not having too many horses was to keep the nation from returning to Egypt. This meant not only that Israel should avoid traveling to Egypt to buy horses; Egypt was the land where the people lived in a low spiritual state, and God wanted their spiritual lives to be elevated.
- The prohibition against too many wives was to keep the king’s heart from turning astray. God knew that, when the kings married many wives, some of them would be idol-worshippers and influence the king and the people to worship idols.
- So, too, an excess of gold and silver would turn the king away from his job of serving the people through the words of the Torah, and become diverted to amassing riches.
The final rule was that the king had to write two copies of the Torah, one to be kept in his treasury and one to accompany him at all times. With the Torah at his side, the king would attend to his true purpose, to “observe all the words of this Torah and these decrees, to perform them, so that his heart does not become haughty over his brethren and not turn from the commandment right or left, so that he will prolong years over his kingdom, he and his sons amid Israel.” (Deuteronomy 17:19)
The king is given wealth and status, so that he could carry out the Torah.
What powers and gifts have you been given, and how do you use them?
August 6, 2021 – Parsha Re’eh
In Parasha Re’eh, we learn again that God has brought the Children of Israel to their new land to be holy, and to avoid the practices of the Canaanites. God gives several commandments, through Moses.
God knows the people will be attracted to idol worship, and commands the Israelites to adhere strictly to certain rules everyone must follow when doing certain “everyday” things.
First, to make sure the Israelites are not tempted by the customs of idolatry and out of respect for the holiness of the land, God instructs them to destroy all the idols and their altars, “sacred” pillars and trees, and even avoid using the idols’ names.
Next, God commands that offerings will only be made at the site God chooses for the Tabernacle. Over time, there were permitted national altars at Gilgal, Shiloh, Nob, Gibeon and finally, Jerusalem. During periods before and after the Tabernacle was in place at Shiloh, and before the Temple at Jerusalem, even when there were national altars, certain optional offerings could be made at private altars, but not required offerings like the sin offering and the guilt offering.
God expands the law regarding the use of kosher animals as food, and commands that, even though required offerings of animals cannot be made at private altars, people could use kosher animals for food at their homes.
God also warns the people against copying the idol worship and other practices of the Canaanites.
Finally, God commands the people to avoid false prophets, and also a city where many people are encouraging the others to worship idols.
One lesson of this parasha is the importance of one’s surroundings – the people we spend time with, the customs and ceremonies we follow, and even the food we eat. God recognized we are all influenced by the people and things around us, and commanded us to avoid people doing things that copied idol worship or lessened the importance of holy things, such as the required offerings. Our everyday activities and habits form who we are. If we are around people doing things that are mean or hurtful to others, or bad for the community, we may end up doing the same things.
We can “help other people at all times” by talking to our neighbors about acting appropriately or, if they refuse, by being careful not to adopt their poor practices.
July 30, 2021 – Parsha Eikev
This week, in Parasha Eikev, Moses continues his farewell speech to the Israelites, which includes reminders of the people’s actions during their journey in the Midbar (Wilderness) and warnings about how the people are to live when they enter the Land of Israel.
Moses explains the people are to remember the entire road they traveled – the events that occurred during 40 years in the Midbar. God’s purpose was “to test you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not.” (Deuteronomy 8:2)
The test Moses then mentions is the manna, the food that descended with the dew every morning and burned off during the course of the day. “He afflicted you, and suffered you to hunger, and fed you with manna that you did not know, nor did your fathers know … .” (Deuteronomy 8:3)
How is the manna a test?
Nachmanides (Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman, 1194-1270, also known as the Ramban) explains the manna was a trial because it was an unusual food. It was new to the Israelites – and the whole world. Their fathers had not known it. It was not like other food. One could only gather enough for his or her family, and any part not eaten that day spoiled. There was nothing else to eat. The manna was not only a gift from God, but also a daily reminder each Israelite was entirely dependent on God.
The Israelites were to learn that in the land flowing with milk and honey, where they would work in farming and raising sheep and cattle, the good soil, abundant rain and sunshine were all provided by God, just as the manna had been. A few sentences later, Moses warns the people not to think their work alone has made them wealthy, but was the work of God who gave them strength, in order to fulfill the covenant God made with the Patriarchs to give their children the land.
The lesson I take from the parasha is to be proud of what we are able to accomplish, and at the same time always remember God is the source of our strength and talents that allow us to do good things. In this way, we pass the same test our ancestors did more than 3,000 years ago.
This is d’var Torah is taken from themes developed by the famous Torah teacher, Dr. Nehama Leibowitz (1905-1997), in her book New Studies in Devarim.
July 23, 2021 – Parsha Va’Eschanan
In this week’s parasha, Va’Eschanan, Moses continues his review of events that happened in the Wilderness as part of the Exodus from Egypt.
Recall God had forbidden Moses to enter the Land of Israel, because he had not followed God’s instructions in asking for water from a rock in the Wilderness of Zin. Even though Moses is aware he has been forbidden to enter Israel, he so loves the land and wants to see it that he asks if he may cross the Jordan River and enter the land. God becomes angry with Moses, and tells him “Do not speak to Me of this matter again.”
Moses then goes back to reviewing the laws the Israelites are to obey when they enter the land. Among those are two very important sets of law we know well: the Ten Commandments (Deuteronomy 5:6-18) and the opening sentence and first paragraph of the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4, and 5-9).
There is even a commandment about teaching one’s children – we recite it every year at the Passover Seder:
When, in time to come, your children ask you, “What mean the decrees, laws, and rules that the Lord our God has enjoined upon you?” You shall say to your children, “We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt and the Lord freed us from Egypt with a mighty hand. The Lord wrought before our eyes marvelous and destructive signs and portents in Egypt, against Pharaoh and all his household; and us He freed from there, that He might take us and give us the land that He had promised on oath to our fathers. Then the Lord commanded us to observe all these laws, to revere the Lord our God, for our lasting good and for our survival, as is now the case. It will be therefore to our merit before the Lord our God to observe faithfully this whole Instruction, as He has commanded us.” (Deuteronomy 6:20-25) [Translation by Sefaria.org]
Now, if it was not a good idea for Moses to anger his Heavenly Father, we don’t want to do anything to anger our early fathers – or mothers or grandparents or other adults we live with – by asking a trick question, like “What are the laws God enjoined upon you?” But you will impress them by pointing out this passage as a way, here in August, we can Be Prepared for next spring’s Passover!
Just don’t mention anything about cleaning out the chometz.
July 16, 2021 – Parsha Devarim
This week, I write in memory of my dear father, Norman Block, Nachum ben Nachman haLevi, whose jahrzeit (the anniversary of a death) is next week. Though he was never registered as a Scout, he was the brother-in-law, father, grandfather and great-grandfather of many Scouts, and he lived the Scout Oath and Law every day.
We are about to experience a fascinating period of a few days, during which we learn of both the beginning and the end of the Jewish people’s life in the Land of Israel during ancient times. And it all has to do with words.
On Shabbat, we read the first portion of the Book of Deuteronomy, Parasha Devarim. In it, Moses repeats most of the mitzvot (commandments) the Israelites will need in order to live in the land. The parasha begins Eleh devarim – “These are the words” – “that Moses spoke to all of Israel”. After a few sentences explaining part of the journey through the Wilderness, Moses teaches the people God’s commandment to enter Israel and take control of the Land: “See, I have given the Land before you. Come and possess the Land that God swore to your forefathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them and their children after them.”
The other event we will mark is the destruction of the Second Temple. That tragedy happened on Tisha B’Av, the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Av. Not only was the Temple destroyed, during the next several decades, many of the Jews were killed, driven out of Israel or sold into slavery. The Jewish people lost control of our Land.
There are many theories about when the Exodus occurred. Many writers suggest it was about 3,500 years ago. We have good records for when the Second Temple was destroyed – the year 70 of the Common Era, or almost 2,000 years ago. So we were in control of our Land for about 1,500 years.
Tisha B’Av is also the date of several other terrible events. Our tradition teaches that was the day that the Meraglim (spies) brought back their misleading report (more words!) about the Land of Canaan and discouraged the Israelites from entering the Land – only Caleb and Joshua gave an accurate report about the Land. The First Temple was also destroyed on that day (there are disagreements on whether the year was 587 or 425 Before the Common Era). On Tisha B’Av 1492 the Jews were expelled from Spain. And on Tisha B’Av 1914 World War I began, which was terrible itself but also led to World War II and the killing of 6 million Jews.
The Talmud and other sources give various reasons for the destruction of the Second Temple, but the reason discussed most frequently is that the people had baseless hatred (in Hebrew, sinat chinam) for each other. To explain baseless hatred, the Talmud (Gittin 56a) tells the story of Kamza and Bar Kamza, where a person mistakenly showed up to a party given by a host who considered him an enemy. Even though the guest offered to pay for the entire party to avoid being embarrassed, the host threw him out. The guest then told a false story to the Romans that made the rest of the Jews look disloyal, and this caused the destruction of the Temple. Notice that both the host and the guest used words – devarim – to hurt others.
The Torah teaches us both the host and the guest were wrong in their use of words. We should not embarrass anyone nor should we lie. Put in Scouting terms, we should be Kind, Courteous and Trustworthy.
Our founder, Lord Baden-Powell, had very practical advice about the wrongs that words can cause. As to letting someone be embarrassed, he wrote, “It does not matter how small the good turn may be – even if it is only to … say a good word for somebody who is being badly spoken of.”
B-P gave wrote this about words in a 1910 essay: “If our lads were trained as a regular habit to see the other fellow’s point of view before passing their own judgement on a dispute, what a difference it would at once make in their manliness of character! Such lads would not be carried away, as is at present too commonly the case, by the first orator who catches their ear on any subject, but they would also go and hear what the other side has to say about it, and would then think out the question and make up their own minds as men for themselves.”
So before judging other people or embarrassing them, be Kind, Courteous and Trustworthy and ask yourself if there might be other points of view to be considered.
Notes: B-P’s advice regarding a good turn comes from a letter to a London boys’ club, 1910, quoted in the collection of B-P writings, Footsteps of the Founder, by Mario Sica, p. 66. The quote about seeing the other fellow’s point of view is from the June 1912 edition of the British Scout Association’s Headquarters Gazette.
July 9, 2021 – Parshot Mattos and Masei
This week we read two parashot, Mattos and Masei.
Much of Parasha Mattos is about the neder, or vow, and that once made, it must be kept. The neder is not a promise to do something, but rather is a promise prohibiting oneself from using or enjoying something, or forbid someone else from using his or her property. The commentary in the Artscroll Chumash explains the neder changes the status of the object – what was once permitted to a person is now prohibited.
The second part of Parasha Mattos tells of the battle against the adult Midianites, who had tried to get the Israelites to worship idols. Their idol worship and their sin in trying to lure the Israelites into idol worship were a threat to the goal of making the land of Israel into a place where the Israelites could worship God.
Parasha Mattos also tells how the tribes of Gad and Reuben, and half the tribe of Manasseh, would not take lands across the Jordan River for their homes, but would take lands east of the river, which had good pasture for grazing cattle. Those tribes would build cities for their families and herds of cattle, and then would join the rest of the Israelites in removing the idol worshipping tribes from Canaan.
Parasha Masei talks about the boundaries of the land which will become Israel, and the process of dividing it among families by lot. Masei also gives instructions about cities for the Levites, who served God by helping in the Temple and living throughout the land to teach Torah. Because the Levites had no large area that would belong to them, they were given smaller areas throughout Israel to build cities, together with fields surrounding the cities for fields and vineyards.
Finally, Parasha Masei discusses the cities of refuge, where people who had accidentally killed someone could go and be safe from revenge by the victim’s family.
The discussion of the neder, where an object’s status changes, is an introduction to the rest of Mattos and Masei. God changes the status of the land of Canaan so that it can become the land of Israel. It is no longer to be a place where people worship idols and take justice into their own hands. The land will become a holy place governed by laws based on a moral code – the Torah.
We also have the ability to change the status of the places we inhabit. We can make our homes, schools, and campsites places of holiness governed by a moral code. While our neighbors, schoolmaters and fellow Scouts may not all follow Torah, any of them will react well when you follow the 12 points of the Scout Law.
July 2, 2021 – Parsha Pinchas
Recently, I had the good fortune to spend six weeks in Israel, visiting two of my sons and their families, and welcoming a new grandson. My long stay reminded me of our connection to Eretz Yisrael, and because of that I want to post a favorite Derech Tsofeh of mine for this week’s parasha from a few years ago.
This week’s parasha, Pinchas, includes a favorite episode of mine from the wanderings in the Wilderness.
As the Children of Israel prepare to enter the Land that God has promised to their ancestors, God has Moses and Elazar the Kohen take a census, and gives instructions for determining how to divide the Land. Within each tribe, the Land shall be divided among the men who are 20 years old and older, by lot.
The daughters of Zelophehad, of the tribe of Manasseh, came to Moses and Elazar and explained their father died in the Wilderness and had no sons. They ask why the name of their father should be omitted because he had no sons. Moses asks God, and learns the daughters are to be given a possession in Israel.
The first lesson I find in this parasha is about the love of the Land of Israel. In describing the census, the Torah states “And of these, there was no man of those counted by Moses and Aaron the Kohen, who counted the Children of Israel in the Wilderness of Sinai.” This was the census taken almost 40 years earlier, after the evil report of the Meraglim (Spies) about what they found in the Land, that resulted in the people crying they wanted to return to Egypt. Their complaining was answered by God decreeing none of them would see the Land except Caleb and Joshua, who gave a true report. Rashi (commentary to Numbers 26:64) explains that it was only the men who wanted to return to Egypt, and that the women said “Give us a possession” in the Land of Israel. Because of their love of the Land, the women were not prohibited from entering the Land.
The other lesson I learn is the proper way to look at the opportunity to perform amitzvah. Because of their love of the Land, the daughters of Zelophehad ask why should the name of their father be omitted (yigarah) because he had no sons? Rashi (commentary to Numbers 27:1) points out that the daughters were righteous (they were fifth-generation granddaughters of Joseph, who also loved the Land), and thus wanted a share of the Land not out of greed, but because they held the Land as precious.
Something similar happened in Parasha Behalotacha, where men who had become ritually unclean by attending to a dead person were not allowed to make the Passover offering. They asked, “Why should we be diminished (nigarah) by not making God’s offering?”
These words from the same root garah show that all of these people felt left out or diminished by not being able to perform a mitzvah. The mitzvot are opportunities to connect to the holy; not using them leaves us out of something very important. So, when you have the chance to do a mitzvah, don’t be left out!
June 25, 2021 – Parsha Balak
In Parashat Balak this week, we learn of the efforts of the king of the Moabites, Balak, to keep the Children of Israel from taking Moab. He has heard of the Amorites’ defeat at the hands of the Israelites and sends messengers to hire the non-Jewish prophet Balaam to curse the Israelites.
Balaam warns Balak’s messengers that he can only speak what God tells him, but King Balak insists that Balaam pronounce a curse.
Balaam rides his donkey to where he is to meet Balak. On the road, the donkey sees an angel in the roadway, and tries to turn aside, first going into a field and then making Balaam’s leg hit a wall. Balaam, who does not see the angel, begins to beat the donkey. The donkey speaks and God opens Balaam’s eyes. Balaam sees the angel and apologizes for coming to curse the Israelites. The angel tells him to continue, but warns that he will only be able to speak the words God gives him.
Balaam tries twice to curse the Israelites, but each time God causes him to bless the Jews. Balak brings Balaam to the edge of the Wilderness. Balaam understands that God wants him to bless the Israelites, and God gives him the power of prophecy. He sees the tribes encamped together in peace and harmony and utters the now famous prophetic poem that begins, “How goodly are your tents, O Jacob, your dwelling places, O Israel.”
Balaam knew that he could only speak as God commanded him, and he was bright enough to realize that God had been blessing the Israelites and was not likely to curse them. Balaam warned Balak about this again and again, but Balak insisted Balaam keep cursing the Israelites. Balak was so wrapped up in the result he wanted that he could not recognize the reality of the situation.
Sometimes we get so consumed with pursuing a goal we lose sight of what is actually happening around us. Unfortunately, this is often the case when we are pursuing the wrong goal. If something is not working after many tries, perhaps we should consider whether what we are trying to do is the right thing.
June 18, 2021 – Parsha Chukas
I study today in memory of my friend and teacher, Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg, rabbi of Congregation Rodfei Sholom, San Antonio, Texas, for 50 years. He passed away today. A seventh generation rabbi, he was a Torah scholar and community leader. He will be greatly missed.
In parasha Chukas this week, we learn a great lesson through the failure of Israel’s greatest leader.
Miriam has passed away, and the well of water that accompanied the people in her merit is no more. The people begin to complain about the lack of food and water.
God tells Moses to take his staff – the one he used to perform miracles such as striking the Nile to turn it to blood and striking a rock at Horeb to bring forth water for the Israelites – and to take Aaron and speak to a rock for water for the people.
Moses gathers the grumbling people and says “Listen now, O rebels, shall we bring forth water for you from this rock?” Instead of speaking to the rock, he strikes it twice with his staff. The rock yields abundant water and the Israelites and their animals all drink.
God tells Moses and Aaron that because they “did not believe Me to sanctify Me in the eyes of the Children of Israel,” they will not lead the people into the Land of Israel.
There is much discussion about exactly what mistake Moses and Aaron made to cause them such a fate – to lead the Israelites from slavery to freedom for 40 years but not to merit to enter the Land.
Rabbi Scheinberg taught that this incident teaches the high standard to which a leader will be held. The leader of God’s people must be held to a very high standard, and if the leader does not meet that standard, it is appropriate the consequence is greater than would be given to a person who has not been entrusted with such responsibility.
The lesson for those of us who are followers is to understand this burden of great leaders, and follow them in a way that will not cause them to fail in their leadership.
June 11, 2021 – Parsha Korach
The founder of the Order of the Arrow, Dr. E. Urner Goodman, used to say that leaders could either lead up or down. In Parasha Korach this week, we read about leaders who led down – in more ways than one.
Korach is from one of the most distinguished families among the Children of Israel. He is a member of the tribe of Levi, and the cousin of Moses, Aaron and Miriam. Together with three members of the tribe of Reuben – Datan, Aviram and On – he begins complaining about the leadership of Moses and Aaron. Their complaint is that Moses and Aaron have taken on too much leadership. Korach also complains Aaron’s family should not be priests. He recruits 250 “men of renown” who are not Levites to join him.
Korach plays on the people’s sadness that they will not be allowed to enter Canaan because they believed the false report of the ten Meraglim (spies) who said the Canaanites were giants and thus the Israelites would not be able to conquer the land. Not only does he stir up discontent, he lies by complaining that Moses has led the people away from Egypt, calling it “a land flowing with milk and honey” – he describes the land where they were enslaved by using the same words that God uses to describe the Land of Israel!
Then Moses gives the rebels a challenge. Tomorrow they are to each bring a fire pan with incense on it to the Tent of Meeting. Moses and Aaron will do the same.
It is a dramatic scene the next day. All the people (called the “assembly”) come and the Shechinah (the cloud that represents God’s glory) appears. God tells Moses and Aaron to stand aside and watch as all the people are destroyed. Once again, Moses intervenes, asking “shall one man sin, and You be angry with the entire assembly?” God tells Moses to have the people move away from the tents of Korach, Dathan and Aviram. (On had left the rebellion, at the urging of his wise wife.) God then causes a pit to open in the ground, and it swallows Korach, Dathan and Aviram and their families. The 250 men of renown who followed Korach and brought pans of incense are consumed by fire.
So you see, physically, Korach led his followers down to the inner reaches of the Earth. He led them down spiritually as well. Many of our rabbis say Korach was jealous that although he was a Levite, he did not have an important position. The rabbis also explain Korach’s followers from the tribe of Reuben were jealous because Reuben’s importance as the firstborn had been lost to the tribe of Levi, which exhibited leadership by not worshipping idols in Egypt or the Golden Calf. Had Korach, Dathan, Aviram and On been true leaders, they would have only been concerned with the welfare of those they led.
In the midst of rebellion led by Korach, the bad leader, we see true leadership exemplified by Moses. Though many questioned his authority, Moses helped the people by imploring God not to punish anyone but those causing the trouble. In the face of someone bringing the people down, Moses strives to lead upward.
June 4, 2021 – Parsha Shelach
This week’s Derech Tzofeh comes from Bruce Chudacoff, past president of the National Jewish Committee on Scouting. It is adapted from his weekly Torah comments for his Temple in North Port, Florida.
This week is Shabbat Shelach. It’s a made-for-Scouting Torah portion and Haftorah. The Israelites had not left Egypt very long before they reached the edge of the Promised Land. Moses had no idea what our people were facing in Canaan. He was a general, leading an Israelite army into a potential battle. He decided, at God’s urging, to find out what was there before he led the Israelites into the Promised Land.
God told him, “Send out for yourself men who will scout the Land of Canaan, which I am giving to the children of Israel. You shall send one man each for his father’s tribe; each one shall be a chieftain in their midst.”
Moses did just what a good Senior Patrol Leader would do. First, he thought out his problem. He needed to know what the people would face when they entered the land. He chose twelve scouts to go throughout Canaan and see what was there. He made a list of instructions for the scouts so they would know what to do and how to do it and a list of questions for them to answer.
Having planned the scouting mission first, Moses was ready to start it. He gave the twelve scouts very specific instructions on what to do. Had Moses been doing this today of course, he could have just sent out some drones to get the information. But in those days, scouts had no vehicles, no drones, no binoculars. All they had was their eyes and ears.
The scouts spent 40 days on their mission. They checked out the crops that the Canaanites and the Amalekites were growing and brought back grapes that looked pretty good. They reported to the entire congregation of the Israelites. They agreed that the Promised Land was flowing with milk and honey, just as promised. But then they said the cities were big and well-fortified, the inhabitants were fierce and there were giants there. All but Caleb and Joshua made this report. Moses and all the Israelites relied on the report of the majority of the scouts and decided that this was not the time to go into the Promised Land. As a result, the Israelites wandered through the wilderness for another 38 or so years and it was a new generation that entered the land.
The Haftorah for this week is from Joshua. It recounts the spy mission he sent two spies on. The spies are sent to Jericho and return with a correct report. The result is a stunning success. Like Moses, Joshua relies on and acts on the report of the spies. The Israelites enter the Promised Land and prosper.
We can learn much that applies to Scouting from these two stories. The most successful activities begin with a good plan. A good leader makes that plan with others who are experienced and have knowledge of what to do, just like Moses did with God’s help.
We also learn that it is important to teach the right skills and practice them. Moses chose people who had experience and were leaders themselves to go on the reconnaissance mission. He trained them for their mission by telling them what to do and how to do it.
Practice always helps make things better and that is the way we operate a successful Scout unit. We plan, we teach the right skills, we practice and then we carry out the plan. Moses’ and Joshua’s scouts carried out their two missions. They scouted out the land and found out what was there. They came back and reported.
Here is where we learn another important lesson for Scouting, the importance of reporting back correctly. Scouts always have others depending on them. In a Scouts BSA, Venturing or Exploring unit, each Scout needs to carry out his or her responsibilities because the rest of the unit depends on what they say and do. If someone makes an incorrect report, the whole unit can suffer from it, just as the Israelites did when ten of the twelve scouts reported back incorrectly.
As Scouts, we follow the Scout Oath and the Scout Law. While the consequences of our actions, both in and out of Scouting, usually aren’t as significant as those of Moses’ scouts and Joshua’s spies, it is important for us to always do what is right. The ripples from our actions can spread far and wide. We want to be like Caleb and Joshua and like Joshua’s spies, carry out our Scouting responsibilities and always be as accurate and forthright as possible.
Yours in Scouting,
May 28, 2021 – Parsha Beha’alotekha
This week’s commentary comes from Bruce Chudacoff. Bruce has just completed eight years as chairman and president of the National Jewish Committee on Scouting – Mazel Tov!
This week is Shabbat Beha’alotekha. It contains instructions on how to prepare the Levites for their tasks as the assistants to the priests. The second Passover takes place (the first was the night of the Tenth Plague) and the Lord provides for those who cannot participate on the right night by creating a second Passover a month later.
More instructions are given. First of all, trumpets are made to signal the Israelites. There are specific signals for when to assemble, when to break camp, when to leave and how to go.
Moses is finding that being the sole leader of over 600,000 people is just too much for him to handle. God instructs him to assemble seventy elders to share the burdens of leadership. Another incident occurs. Miriam and Aaron decide that they should be equal to Moses in the leadership of the Israelites.
There are a few great lessons in this Torah portion for all of us as Scouts. We can apply them to our camping experiences but they have meaning for us in everything we do.
Moses was appointed the leader of the people. Miriam and Aaron tried to take his authority away. We see that once someone is put in charge, a senior patrol leader, the person in charge of a camping trip, the person making arrangements for an event, that person needs to be respected and his or her leadership needs to be followed. You may prefer to do things your way but that is not the Scout way just as it was not the way of our ancestors.
Moses found out the hard way that leadership can be a great burden. The Lord showed him how to obtain help so his leadership could produce positive results. The appointment of seventy elders provided Moses with a way to share the burdens of day-to-day life while still maintaining his authority. In Scouting, we recognize the wisdom of appointing helpers. We have a senior patrol leader and patrol leaders; we have a cook and assistants; we have one person in charge of the camping trip, a quartermaster to make sure we have the right equipment, someone to buy the food, someone to work on the transportation and travel permits if we need them, someone to check health forms and so on. Scouting teaches the lesson that Moses had to learn for himself; don’t take on the whole job by yourself. These lessons are of greater importance as we enter adult society. No leader can succeed without surrounding himself or herself with competent helpers who help to carry out the leader’s vision.
The Torah portion teaches us something else of major importance – preparation and planning are central to success. At the beginning of the portion, the priests prepare the Levites for their service at the Tabernacle. They all know what their jobs are in advance and are purified so they can perform them properly. We all need to be told what our individual jobs for an activity will be ahead of time and then we have to practice them so we are ready to carry out our assigned tasks at the right time.
The Torah also teaches us the importance of clear communication. They didn’t have cell phones in Biblical times, so trumpets had to do the work of notifying the people when it was time to take certain steps. We learn the importance of communication from these instructions. Yes, we too can use trumpets or bugles at camp as long as we communicate and let everyone know what our signals mean. We can also use a cell phone or other communications devices to make sure everyone is on the same page when it comes to our events.
There’s a lot to learn when we try to visualize the experiences of the Israelites in the wilderness and in early Israel. Just as Moses had to learn how to be a good leader by sharing the load, the people had to learn that a good leader needs to be trusted and followed. Planning, training and communication are keys to success in Scouting, just as they were in the wilderness.
May 20, 2021 – Parshat Naso
This week’s d’var Torah is from Rabbi Susan Elkodsi, Rabbi at the Malverne Jewish Center, Malverne, NY, and chaplain at the last World Scout Jamboree.
All the Levites whom Moses, Aaron, and the chieftains of Israel recorded by the clans of their ancestral houses, from the age of thirty years up to the age of fifty, all who were subject to duties of service and porterage relating to the Tent of Meeting–those recorded came to 8,580. Each one was given responsibility for his service and porterage at the command of the LORD through Moses, and each was recorded as the LORD had commanded Moses. (Bamidbar 4:46-49)
I’ve often joked that “Jews don’t camp, 40 years in the desert was enough.” And here the Israelites are Ba-midbar, in the wilderness, or desert, on a huge trek on their way to the Promised Land, a campout they soon learn will last another 38 years.
In 2019, I was honored to serve as a chaplain at the World Scout Jamboree in 2019, where I saw what an enormous undertaking it was, and the tremendous amount of planning and organization that was done. Yes, there were a few glitches, but it was amazing how things managed to move so smoothly, and how many people were moved from once place to another. This involved way more logistics involved than the average troop campout, so imagine the idea of hundreds of thousands of Israelites in the wilderness doing this, but without the computers, smartphones and technology we have today.
Parshat Naso begins with instructions for the Levites of the Gershon and Merari clans who assist the kohanim with the porterage, assembly, and disassembly of the Mishkan, the sanctuary in the wilderness. I think the Mishkan might just be the first-ever Eagle project; donations needed to be solicited, all kinds of things needed to built and created out of a variety of materials, and everyone needed to participate.
Naso tells us that each of the three “troops” of Levites were responsible for different tasks, which were specifically spelled out.
We can look at parashat Naso as a huge campout or Klondike, and consider the process that we, as Scouts, go through when planning a troop, crew or other outing. Duty rosters? Check. Gear needs to be transported, tents and cooking equipment need to be set up, taken down, cleaned and stowed, and everyone has to pitch in (pun intended). God created task lists, and each of the groups had specific duties. This ensured that things were done properly, and that no one was fighting over a task, and everything followed a schedule and instructions. Each Levite learned his job, and since the period of service for a Levite was between the ages of 30 and 50, each had to pass his knowledge to and train the next generation.
In our Scouting and “regular” lives, how do we relate to an ancient text like this? What can we learn from them? Parshat Naso teaches us the importance of dividing and assigning tasks in order for projects to go smoothly, and the importance of making sure to do things properly the first time. As a youth-led organization, Scouts BSA teaches scouts to be mentors, to work together as a team, and to take pride in a job well done.
Scouts and Jews are expected to behave in ways that bring honor to themselves and the community, and both the Torah and the 12 Points of the Scout Law are the trails we follow to become strong examples to the world.
May the Supreme Scoutmaster bless you and protect you! May God deal kindly and graciously with you! May God’s face always be turned towards you, and may the Holy One of Blessing give you peace! Shabbat Shalom.
Rabbi Susan Elkodsi
May 13, 2021 – Parshat Bamidbar
This week’s d’var Torah is from Rabbi Art Vernon, Rabbi at Congregation Shaaray Shalom, West Hempstead, NY, and National Chaplain, NJCOS.
Parashat Bamidbar finds the Israelites in the wilderness, still at Mt. Sinai, but making preparations to head toward the Promised Land. One of the preparations is taking a census of able-bodied men in case the Israelites need to defend themselves. The Torah specifies that males age twenty and older should be counted. At that time, twenty years old was considered adulthood. Can you imagine taking on the responsibilities of adulthood at age 20 today? I think some of you may be able to do that. Notice that females were not counted. Today, we would also count females as we include females in Scouting.
Another preparation is organizing the line of march, the order of the tribes as they proceed through the wilderness. The tribes are told to follow the leader carrying their flag with their insignia. Each tribe has its own flag with its own insignia. Sort of like we have in Scouting. Our flags have our Unit number on them, which identifies what group we are part of. But our insignia is the same for all of us, the fleur-de-lis. Perhaps you have been in a Council or civic event in which many Scout units participated, each assembled behind their own Scout flag.
Why is the fleur-de-lis the symbol and insignia of Scouting? It was a common symbol on maps and on compasses, indicating the North, and it still is! It represents focus, direction and steadfastness, all qualities that we value in Scouting. Today, when we learn orienteering, everyone has a compass. Back then, usually only the leader or a couple of people had a compass and led the group. So, the fleur-de-lis can also be a symbol of leadership. One of our goals in Scouting is to help each of our youth members, all of you, to become leaders in Scouting and leaders in the community and the world when you are older. Just as there are many opportunities to be a leader in Scouting, from the Patrol, to the Unit and to the Council, so too there will be many opportunities to lead when you are older. We hope that your experience in Scouting prepares you to be a leader later in life. I took advantage of all the leadership training and service opportunities available in Scouting when I was youth member, and I was well-prepared to take on leadership roles throughout my life. May the fleur-de-lis of Scouting lead you to your true North!
Rabbi Art Vernon
Derech Tzofeh, the Path of the Scout, is brought to you by the National Jewish Committee on Scouting. ©2017 Nelson R. Block. Prior Derech Tzofeh are available at the J-Scouts message repository on Yahoo! Groups.